Types of EPD and the five life cycle stages

There are three types of EPD based on five life cycle stages:

Cradle to gate
  • Covering the product stage information modules A1 – A3 (raw material supply, transport, manufacturing of products).  This comprises the minimum of processes that are required for compliance with EN 15804: 2012.
  • Declared unit1
  • Shall not be used for comparison
Cradle to gate with options
  • Covering the product stage information A1 – A3 as a minimum, plus any other information modules from both the use stage (B1 – B7) and the end-of-life stage (C1 – C4).  Benefits and loads beyond the system boundary (Module D) may be included.
  • Declared unit or functional unit2
  • Shall not be used for comparison
 Cradle to grave
  • Covering all the life cycle stages as a minimum, including end-of-life (C1 – C4) at or beyond the study period.  Benefits and loads beyond the system boundary (Module D) may be included.
  • Functional unit
  • Can be used for comparison if the functional unit is equivalent
Notes:1 Quantity of a construction product for use as a reference unit in an EPD for an environmental declaration based on one or more information modules e.g. mass (tonne), area (m2), length (m), volume (m3), item (piece).2 Quantified performance of a product system for use as a reference unit.