Standards by Category

Table of Contents

Design Code of Practice

(BS) EN 1995-1-1 (Eurocode 5)

This is the core standard for designing timber structures. See also national annexes for country-specific requirements

Harmonised/Designated Standards

(BS) EN 13986:2004 +A1:2015

The overall standard for wood-based panels in construction. See also specific clauses & tables

(BS) EN 14374:2004

Timber structures – requirements for structural laminated veneer lumber

Product Standards

(BS) EN 14279:2004+A1:2009

Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) – Definitions, classification and specifications

(BS) EN 300:2006

OSB: Definitions, classification and specification

(BS) EN 636:2012+A1:2015

Plywood product standard – for general purpose use and in load bearing applications in all conditions, includes a classification for bending properties

 

Sustainability

(BS) EN 15804:2012+A2:2019

Most important environmental standard and provides core rules for creating an EPD

Engineering values

(BS) EN 14272:2011

(BS) EN 14272 : 2011
Plywood – Calculation method for some mechanical properties

PD CEN/TR 12872:2014

Guidance on the use of load-bearing panel boards in floors, walls and roofs

(BS) EN 1195:1998

Specifies how to determine the strength and stiffness under a point load. See also (BS) EN 12871

(BS) EN 12369-1:2001

(BS) EN 12369-1 provides characteristic values for the use of eingeered wood in design

(BS) EN 789:2004

(BS) EN 789 specifies how to determine some mechanical properties

(BS) EN 596:1995

Explains how to specify and test for soft body impact on timber framed walls

(BS) EN 594:2011

Standard for determining rack resistance

(BS) EN 12871:2013

Performance characteristics for load-bearing panels used in floors, walls and roofs – specifying a method for determining the performance characteristics through type testing

(BS) EN 12369-2:2001

(BS) EN 12369-2 provides information on the characteristic values for use in designing structure

(BS) EN 1156:2013

(BS) EN 1156 specifies how to determine duration of load and creep factors

(BS) EN 1058:2009

Determining the characteristic five percentile values for mechanical properties and 50 percentile values for physical properties from test data

Dimensions

(BS) EN 325:2012

Wood-based panels – determination of dimensions of test pieces

(BS) EN 324-2:1993

Wood-based panels – determination of squareness and edge straightness

(BS) EN 324-1:1993

Wood-based panels – determination of thickness, width and length

(BS) EN 315:2000

Plywood – Tolerances for dimensions

(BS) EN 318:2002

(BS) EN 318 : 2002
Wood-based panels – Determination of dimensional changes associated with changes in relative humidity

(BS) EN 317:1993

(BS) EN 317 specifies how to determine swelling by thickness

Moisture

(BS) EN 322:1993

(BS) EN 322 : 1993
Wood-based panels – Determination of moisture content

(BS) EN 321:2002

(BS) EN 321 specifies how to determine the moisture resistance under cyclic test conditions

(BS) EN 1087-1:1995

For a boil test, (BS) EN 1087-1 provides a test method for evaluating bond quality

Density

(BS) EN 323:1993

(BS) EN 323 : 1993
Wood-based panels – Determination of density

Sampling and Quality Control

(BS) EN 326-2:2010+A1:2014

Methods for internal initial type testing

(BS) EN 326-3:2003

Wood-based panels – inspection of an isolated lot of panels

(BS) EN 326-1:1994

(BS) EN 326-1 explains how to record, express and present test results

(BS) EN 310:1993

Specifies how to determine bending strength and stiffness

Bond Quality

(BS) EN 319:1993

(BS) EN 319 specifies how to determine the internal bond

(BS) EN 314-2:1993

Specifies the requirements for bonding classes of veneer plywood according to their end uses

(BS) EN 314-1:2004

Test method for determining bond quality by shear testing

Durability

(BS) EN 350:2016

Testing and classification of the durability to biological agents of wood and wood-based materials

DDCEN/TS 1099 : 2007

Plywood: biological durability – guidance for the assessment of plywood for use in different use classes

(BS) EN 335:2013

Defines the Use Classes representing different service situations and classes

Sound

(BS) EN ISO 354:2003

(BS) EN ISO 354 specifies how to determine the sound absorption coefficient

Formaldehyde release

(BS) EN ISO 12460-5:2015

Guidance to determine any formaldehyde release by the extraction (or perforator) method.  Refer also to EN 717-1 & -2 for plywood and LVL

(BS) EN 717-1:2004

(BS) EN 717-1 specifies how to determine formaldehyde emission by the chamber method

(BS) EN ISO 12460-3:2020

Manufacturers refer to Part 3 to determine formaldehyde release  by the gas analysis method.  For plywood and LVL, also refer to (BS) EN 717-2:1994 

(BS) EN 717-2:1994

Specifies a method for determining formaldehyde emission by the gas analysis method

Fire

(BS) EN 16733:2016

Reaction to fire tests for building products – Determination of a building product’s propensity to undergo continuous smoldering

(BS) EN 13501-1:2018

Fire classification of construction products and building elements – using test data from reaction to fire tests

Product Appearance

(BS) EN 635-5:1999

Parameters of ability for finishing, guidelines

(BS) EN 635-3:1995

Parameters of ability for finishing, guidelines

(BS) EN 635-1:1995

Plywood – general classification by surface appearance

Air Permeability

(BS) EN 12114:2000

(BS) EN 12114 determination of and how to express the air permeability coefficient

Thermal Conductivity

(BS) EN 12664:2001

(BS) EN 12664 specifies a method to determine thermal resistance

Water Vapour Permeability

(BS) EN ISO 12460-3:2020

Specifies how to determine water vapour resistance and water vapour transmission properties by the cup method

Miscellaneous

Embedment Strength

(BS) EN 383:2007

(BS) EN 383 How to determine the embedment strength of fasteners

Classification and Terminology

(BS) EN 313-2:2000

Plywood – Classification and Terminology – Terminology

(BS) EN 313-1:1996

Plywood classification and terminology. See also core product standard (BS) EN 636

Common Technical Symbols

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What defines a product under UK and EU construction product regulations?

This applies to any product or kit which is produced and placed on the market for incorporation in a permanent manner in construction works or parts thereof and the performance of which has an effect on the performance of the construction works with respect to the basic requirements for construction works.’

Products must clearly display the appropriate conformity marking and have the correct Declaration of Performance documentation  in line with either the UK-CPR or the EU-CPR. More

Tell me more about a Declaration of Performance

Manufacturers wishing to trade in the European market are legally required to set down the levels of performance for any construction product. They have to be listed in an official document called a Declaration of Performance. More.

The mark of approval stamped on a panel means it can legally be used – but which standards apply?

You can either check out the right standard for your application; or look at the standards that the trademarked panels comply with for different plywood grades – A-A, A-B, A-C; B-B, B-C; C-C, C-D – here.

 

 

What is the difference between a touch-sanded panel and sanded panel?

The veneer of  an APA trademarked panel must conform to one of the six grades listed in the US PS 1-19 standard: N, the highest classification (rarely produced), followed by A, B, C-plugged, C and D. Non-overlaid APA plywood panels come in three levels of surface finish – sanded, touch-sanded and unsanded. More.

Also see veneer grades for Popular APA Plywood Panels.

How do APA veneer grades match those in UK and EU standards

The main grades for APA’s structural plywood panels are: A-A, A-B, A-C, B-B, B-C;,C-C, C-D, D-D, Sturd-I-Floor, Underlayment, CC plugged, CD plugged. APA has a quick guide here to help you match the grades with the requirements of (BS) EN 635-3. Equivalents cannot be exactly compared as two different sets of grading rules apply.

I want to specify an APA panel for concrete formwork – what do I need to know?

Plyform is a type of panel with sufficient strength to support the weight of the wet concrete. APA offers three types, all using only the strongest wood species (groups 1,2 or 3) for the face and back veneers. They have an exterior bond classification and come in three strength classes – Structural 1, Class I or Class II.

See APA’s comprehensive Concrete Forming Design/Construction Guide for architects, engineers and contractors and the types of APA concrete forming plywood panels.

What plywood panels likely to be available in the UK & EU?

The main grades for APA’s structural plywood panels are:  A-A, A-B, A-C, B-B, B-C;,C-C, C-D, D-D, Sturd-I-Floor, Underlayment, CC plugged, CD plugged.  Non-overlaid APA plywood panels come in three levels of surface finish – sanded, touch-sanded and unsanded.  APA’s guide identifies each panel’s specific finish, veneer strengths and the wood species used, as well as bond durability.

 

What are the main European standards that I would need to be aware of for plywood panels?

The main standards are: EN 13986, EN 636, EN 314, EN 635-3.  And for more details, see EU standards for plywood.

The CE-mark on an APA plywood panel means it conforms to European Standards – but which ones?

Plywood Design Information looks at the plywood grades A-A, A-B, A-C; B-B, B-C; C-C, C-D and the relevant standards that the trademarked panels comply with.

 

How do APA veneer grades match those given in the European standards

APA has produced two easy to follow guides to help match the grade numbers given on a US finished plywood panel with the requirements of  EN 635-3.

Detailed guide listing permissible defects – with maximum sizes.

Simplified guide to the US PS 1-19 veneer grading rules and appearance grades in EN 635-3 based on the appearance of the surface veneers. Equivalents cannot be exactly compared as two different sets of grading rules apply.

I want to specify an APA panel for concrete formwork – what do I need to know?

See APA’s comprehensive Concrete Forming Design/Construction Guide for architects, engineers and contractors and the types of APA concrete forming plywood panels.

What are the main plywood panels likely to be available in Europe?

What are the main standards for plywood panels?

The main standards are: (BS) EN 13986, (BS) EN 636, (BS) EN 314, (BS) EN 635-3.  And see ‘Applications, Check your Standard‘.

What are the main changes to the FSC Chain of Custody Certification standard?

Download What’s New in FSC revised COC standard.   Also, the previous FSC compulsory verification programme has been replaced by a due diligence protocol with a new risk assessment system. Learn more. Good forestation practice in the US supports the aims of EUTR.  Its sustainably managed forests comply with one or more of the five leading certification agencies responsible for verifying proper forestry practices.

 

Can US certified EPDs be used for environmental performance ratings under the BREEAM system?

APA products can count towards a building’s BREEAM rating, learn how here.  The British Research Establishment and the US Underwriters Laboratories  now recognise each other’s certified EPD making it simpler for APA member mills to gain environmental performance ratings under the BRE Environmental Assessment Method  (BREEAM).

Does APA plywood meet the lowest category (E1) for formaldehyde release without need for further testing?

Under the harmonised European Standard for wood-based panels, EN 13986, Annex B, ‘wood-based panels glued with resins emitting either no formaldehyde or negligible amounts of formaldehyde after production as e.g. isocyanate or phenolic glue’ are to be classified as E1 (the lowest formaldehyde release class) without further testing.

See APA’s guide Formaldehyde and Engineered Wood Products.  APA plywood is designated under the lowest E1 category for formaldehyde release without needing further testing.  APA’s US PS 1 and PS 2 plywood have been tested to EN 717-1 and formaldehyde levels already meet the requirements for the E1 classification limit.

Also see:  Formaldehyde (plywood) and Formaldehyde (OSB).

 

 

Can APA plywood and OSB be used in non-construction applications?

US plywood and OSB are equally effective as sturdy, robust and cost-effective solutions  for non-construction applications – from shelving, site hoardings , protective linings in the cargo bay of delivery vehicles to packaging and furniture.   See APA’s Performance Panels.   Need help to decide what grade or type of panel to use for a specific application? APA’s Industrial Panel Selection Guide (Form T200) is another easy to use resource.

What are Use Classes and how do they equate with Service Classes?

For maximum biological durability, both Service Classes and Use Classes must be considered when specifying engineered wood panels. See APA’ s guide here.

Use Classes covering plywood and OSB have replaced ‘hazard classes’. They will also cover LVL when the LVL standards have completed their update. Use Classes are based on different environmental exposures that can make the panel susceptible to deterioration. The  in Eurocode 5 assign strength values and calculate deformation in load-bearing situations. They are determined by the moisture content of the panel corresponding to the environmental humidity and temperature during service.

How do APA’s member’s products count towards a sustainability assessment for new construction or in refurbishment projects?

The British Research Establishment and the US Underwriters Laboratories  now recognize each other’s certified EPD making it simpler for APA member mills to gain environmental performance ratings under the BRE Environmental Assessment Method  (BREEAM).  This is the UK’s leading and most widely used environmental assessment method for buildings and communities. It sets the standard for best practice in sustainable design and has become the de facto measure used to describe a building’s environmental performance. Learn how APA products can count towards a building’s BREEAM rating.

What is a ‘life cycle stage’ and how do these link to the environmental assessment of whole buildings?

A good starting point is our Green Topics section and  Types of EPD and the five life cycle stages

How do core category rules link with environmental product declarations?

EN 15804:2012 +A1:2013 provides the core Product Category Rules (PCR) for the production of Environmental Product Declarations (EPD) for all construction products and services.  Review with main environmental standards.  For more details see: Core Product Category Rules (PCR) for Products and Services. 

Whose responsibility is it to check that wood products being imported into the EU do not originate from illegally sourced timber supplies?

The European Union Timber Regulation (EUTR) puts specific obligations on operators and traders . Operators (or importers) are any (natural or legal) person first placing timber on the EU market. They must maintain records of any traders that they supply timber to.  They must implement a due diligence system to minimise the risk of putting illegal timber or any of its derived products on the market.  Learn more.

Does the EUTR require mills to provide any extra documentation for customs entry into the European Union?

The European Union Timber Regulation (EUTR) puts specific obligations on operators and traders and applies to timber originating in the domestic (EU) market, as well as from third (non-EU) countries such as  the US. The information it requires has to be retained for at least five years and be available on request.  See European Timber Regulation.

Must all plywood and OSB panels carry a CE marking?

Manufacturers of wood-based products  covered by either a harmonised European standard (hEN) or a European Technical Assessment (ETA) must apply for CE marking under the 2013 Construction Products Regulation.  See CPR & CE Marking  and our Official Guidelines section.

What is the definition of a construction product under the CPR?

This applies to any product or kit which is produced and placed on the market for incorporation in a permanent manner in construction works or parts thereof and the performance of which has an effect on the performance of the construction works with respect to the basic requirements for construction works.’

Products must clearly display the CE mark and have the correct Declaration of Performance documentation.  For more info: CPR & CE Marking.

What is a Declaration of Performance referred to under the Construction Products Regulation?

Under the CPR, manufacturers wishing to trade in the European market are legally required to set down the levels of performance for any construction product.  They have to be listed in an official document called a Declaration of Performance.

What is the difference between Structural 1 and Exposure 1?

Exposure 1 is a glue bond classification.  It uses the same 100% waterproof glue as exterior panels and refers to a panel’s durability when long delays in construction are expected or when facing high moisture content. For plywood, see  https://apawood-europe.org/products-trademarks/plywood/trademarks/glue-bond/.  For OSB:  https://apawood-europe.org/products-trademarks/osb/trademarks/exposure-durability-classification/

Structural 1 refers to a panel’s superior performance characteristics.  For OSB, see https://apawood-europe.org/products-trademarks/osb/comparable-performance-requirements/

For Structural 1 plywood,  all panels have special improved veneer grades and if manufactured to the US PS1 standard, the veneer grades will be species with a Group 1 strength classification.  See group classification of species.

 

The CE-mark on an APA plywood panel means it conforms to European Standards – but which ones?

Plywood Design Information looks at the plywood grades A-A, A-B, A-C; B-B, B-C; C-C, C-D and the relevant standards that the trademarked panels comply with.

 

I want to use a Rated Sheathing panel for flooring/ roofing application, what info do I need to know?

For plywood, see Span rating.  For OSB, see Span rating. A full range of technical information in under Products and Trademarks.

What extra strength benefits do Structural 1 OSB panels provide over standard Rated Sheathing panels?

OSB Structural I  on an APA trademark indicates that the OSB structural-panel meets the requirements of a Performance Rated panel.  This delivers superior design capacity for these panels over OSB Rated Sheathing and Sturd-I-Floor.  Also see Comparison of Superior Design Capacities for OSB Structural I Sheathing with OSB Rated Sheathing.

What is the difference between a touch-sanded panel and sanded panel?

Veneer in a finished US trademarked plywood panel must conform to one of the six grades listed in the US PS 1-09 standard: N, the highest classification (rarely produced), followed by A, B, C-plugged, C and D.  Non-overlaid APA plywood panels come in three levels of surface finish – sanded, touch-sanded and unsanded.

Also see veneer grades for Popular APA Plywood Panels.

How do APA veneer grades match those given in the European standards

APA has produced two easy to follow guides to help match the grade numbers given on a US finished plywood panel with the requirements of  EN 635-3.

Detailed guide listing permissible defects – with maximum sizes.

Simplified guide to the US PS 1-19 veneer grading rules and appearance grades in EN 635-3 based on the appearance of the surface veneers. Equivalents cannot be exactly compared as two different sets of grading rules apply.

How do I correctly gauge the face appearance a plywood Siding panel?

I want to specify an APA panel for concrete formwork – what do I need to know?

See APA’s comprehensive Concrete Forming Design/Construction Guide for architects, engineers and contractors and the types of APA concrete forming plywood panels.

Are APA panels tongue and grooved on all four edges?

APA panels have a tongue and groove profile on their two long edges.  This eliminates the need for support (blocking) under adjacent panel edges to prevent them from deflecting independently of each other when load is applied.  See Tongue & Groove  (plywood) and Tongue & Groove (OSB).

I am not familiar with the term ‘Sized for Spacing’ – what is its significance?

‘Sized for Spacing’ on APA Rated Sheathing, APA Rated Sturd-I-Floor and APA Rated Siding trademarks indicates that the manufacturer has produced the panel to a size slightly less than the traditional nominal 2440mm (96″) by 1220mm (48″).  It is done to facilitate proper panel spacing during construction.  See Sized for Spacing  (plywood) and Sized for Spacing  (OSB).  For further technical details see Product and Trademarks.

How are Performance Category and thickness related?

Performance Category, Panel Thickness and Span Ratings are key categories that need to be considered together.  See Thickness, Performance Category  (plywood) and Thickness, Performance Category (OSB).

I’d like to know more about a panel’s Span Rating and how it links to thickness.

Plywood: Span rating
OSB: Span rating

What is Span Rating on the APA trademark and why is it important?

Span Rating denotes the maximum recommended centre to centre spacing of supports in inches over which the panel should be placed with its strength axis across two or more supports. Plywood: Span rating.  OSB: Span rating

What is the difference between Exposure 1 and Exterior plywood panels? What are their appropriate uses?

Bond classification relates to moisture resistance of the glue bond and therefore to the structural integrity of the panel.  See glue bond durability classification (plywood) and exposure durability (OSB).

What are the main OSB panels likely to be available in Europe?

See APA’s guide to panel grades  and also info on understanding the trademark.

What are the main plywood panels likely to be available in Europe?

What are the main European standards that I would need to be aware of for OSB panels?

The main standards are: EN 13986 and EN 300.   But also see the other relevant standards for OSB.

What are the main European standards that I would need to be aware of for plywood panels?

The main standards are: EN 13986, EN 636, EN 314, EN 635-3.  And for more details, see EU standards for plywood.