Section Contents

Three LCA Categories form the THREE Types of EPD

Cradle to Gate, Cradle to Gate with Options and Cradle to Grave are the three categories of Life Cycle Assessment and form the three types of EPD.  They are based on the five stages in the life cycle of a building (see guide to five life cycle stages required by EN 15804 and how they are further sub divided into modules).

Within these three categories are:

  • generic assessment that collates data from several manufacturers of the same product to create an industry average.
  • proprietary assessment providing information relating to a single manufacturer.
Cradle to gate
  • Covering the product stage information modules A1 – A3 (raw material supply, transport, manufacturing of products).  This comprises the minimum of processes that are required for compliance with EN 15804: 2012.
  • Declared unit1
  • Shall not be used for comparison.
Cradle to gate with options
  • Covering the product stage information A1 – A3 as a minimum, plus any other information modules from both the use stage (B1 – B7) and the end-of-life stage (C1 – C4).  Benefits and loads beyond the system boundary (Module D) may be included.
  • Declared unit or functional unit2
  • Shall not be used for comparison.
 Cradle to grave
  • Covering all the life cycle stages as a minimum, including end-of-life (C1 – C4) at or beyond the study period.  Benefits and loads beyond the system boundary (Module D) may be included.
  • Functional unit.
  • Can be used for comparison if the functional unit is equivalent.

Notes:

1 Quantity of a construction product for use as a reference unit in an EPD for an environmental declaration based on one or more information modules e.g. mass (tonne), area (m2), length (m), volume (m3), item (piece).

2 Quantified performance of a product system for use as a reference unit.

APA in Europe Wizard

Close
All Questions OSBPlywood

What is a ‘life cycle stage’ and how do these link to the environmental assessment of whole buildings?

How do core category rules link with environmental product declarations?

Whose responsibility is it to check that wood products being imported into the EU do not originate from illegally sourced timber supplies?

Does the EUTR require mills to provide any extra documentation for customs entry into the European Union?

Must all plywood and OSB panels carry a CE marking?

What is the definition of a construction product under the CPR?

What is a Declaration of Performance referred to under the Construction Products Regulation?

What is the difference between Structural 1 and Exposure 1?

Does structural panel siding have shear values?

What are mould and mildew, and do they compromise the integrity of engineered wood?

The CE-mark on an APA plywood panel means it conforms to European Standards – but which ones?

I want to use a Rated Sheathing panel for flooring/ roofing application, what info do I need to know?

Plywood: Span rating
OSB: Span rating

What extra strength benefits do Structural 1 OSB panels provide over standard Rated Sheathing panels?

Do APA panels give off formaldehyde?

Plywood: Formaldehyde
OSB: Formaldehyde

What is the difference between a touch-sanded panel and sanded panel?

I’d like to know how APA veneer grades match those given in the European standards

How do I correctly gauge the face appearance a plywood Siding panel?

I want to specify an APA panel for concrete formwork – what do I need to know?

Are APA panels tongue and grooved on all four edges?

I am not familiar with the term ‘Sized for Spacing’ – what is its significance?

How are Performance Category and thickness related?

I’d like to know more about a panel’s Span Rating and how it links to thickness.

Plywood: Span rating
OSB: Span rating

What is Span Rating on the APA trademark and why is it important?

Plywood: Span rating
OSB: Span rating

What is the difference between Exposure 1 and Exterior plywood panels? What are their appropriate uses?

What are the main OSB panels likely to be available in Europe?

What are the main plywood panels likely to be available in Europe?

What are the main European standards that I would need to be aware of for OSB panels?

The main standards are: EN 13986 and EN 300

What are the main European standards that I would need to be aware of for plywood panels?

The main standards are: EN 13986, EN 636, EN 314, EN 635-3